Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators and also learners may also educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy.

Formal education is commonly divided formally into such stages as preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and then college, university, or apprenticeship.

A right to education has been recognized by some governments and the United Nations.In most regions, education is compulsory up to a certain age. Education began in prehistory, as adults trained the young in the knowledge and skills deemed necessary in their society. In pre-literate societies, this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling passed knowledge, values, and skills from one generation to the next. As cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be readily learned through imitation, formal education developed. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom.

Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi (right) in the Chinese edition of Euclid’s Elements published in 1607
Plato founded the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in Europe. The city of Alexandria in Egypt, established in 330 BCE, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of Ancient Greece. There, the great Library of Alexandria was built in the 3rd century BCE. European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE 476.

In China, Confucius (551–479 BCE), of the State of Lu, was the country’s most influential ancient philosopher, whose educational outlook continues to influence the societies of China and neighbours like Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Confucius gathered disciples and searched in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance, but his Analects were written down by followers and have continued to influence education in East Asia into the modern era.


Carte dite de Cassini, issue de l’exemplaire du XVIIIe siècle. Mise à jour : janvier 2013. Légende
Carte d’état major française (1820-1866), 1/80000. Légende

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Toponyme : n. m. (\tɔ.pɔ.nim\)
Du grec ancien τόπος, tópos ("lieu") et ὄνυμα/ónoma, "nom".
Nom sous lequel on désigne un élément géographique déterminé, donné pour qualifier un lieu et identifier précisément un point de repère géographique et spatial localisé. Un toponyme est un témoin à la fois concret et symbolique des sociétés humaines dont l'origine et la signification font l'objet d'importants débats. Il a le plus souvent été attribué selon un processus logique et rationnel, dans un souci de description du paysage et d'évocation des activités qui y étaient pratiquées.

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